Alfred Nobel, the Swedish Inventor, started the Nobel prize to recognize those people who reached the pinnacle of their fields. The Nobel Prize winners for 2016 are:
a) For Medicine or Physiology, Yoshinori Ohsumi showed the cellular process of cell eating or autophagy. He found out how yeast cells work and he revealed the autophagy which took place. Due to his discoveries in the 1990’s, there was a better understanding of the recycling of the contents of the cells and to understanding diseases and mutations.
b) For Physics, David J Thouless, J Michael Kosterlitz as well as F. Duncan M Haldane were awarded the Nobel Prize for physics. This is for their work on the theoretical discoveries of the phases of matter. They used advanced mathematics and used it for examination of the weird states of matter like liquids which do not have viscosity or superfluids etc.
c) For Chemistry, Sir J Fraser Stoddart, Jean-Pierre Sauvage as well as Bernard L Feringa were awarded the prize due to the synthesis and design of the molecular machine which linked molecules into units which could work when there was energy added.
d) The Peace Prize was given to Juan Manuel Santos of Columbia. The President won it for his efforts to end the civil war which lasted more than half a century and which killed at least 220,000 Columbians and where at least 6 million people were displaced. In fact, he was able to negotiate a peace deal made with the government as well as the guerrillas.
e) For Literature the Nobel Prize was granted to Bob Dylan for creating poetic expressions in American song. In fact, he is the first of any musicians to be granted this award for this category. His songs were for the rights of workers, for those that were victimized or those living in poverty.

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